• 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 09FTM11-2009 Unique Design Constraints For Molded Plastic Transmissions
    语言:
    适用范围:Molded plastic gears and transmissions must work effectively inextremely variable conditions just as their counterparts in steel.Plastics have the added variables of large thermal expansion andcontraction, moisture absorption, greater tolerance variation,lower strength, and form deviations due to the molding process. Thedesign of a molded transmission must consider these effects andcharacteristics. This paper will offer an example of thedevelopment of a molded plastic gear pump intended for the verysteady delivery of 50 psi water pressure for a medical application.It will present our approach in design, tolerancing, materialselection, molding procedure, and testing to achieve and verify aneffective as-molded transmission.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 09FTM06-2009 Dependency Of The Peak-To-Peak-Transmission-Error On The Type Of Profile Correction And The Transverse Contact Ratio Of The Gear Pair
    语言:
    适用范围:Profile corrections on gears are a commonly used method toreduce transmission error, contact shock, and scoring risk. Thereare different types of profile corrections. It is a known fact,that the type of profile correction used will have a stronginfluence on the resulting transmission error. The degree of thisinfluence may be determined by calculating tooth loading duringmesh. The current method for this calculation is very complicatedand time consuming; however, a new approach has been developedwhich could reduce the calculation time. This approach uses an algorithm which includes the conventionalmethod for calculating tooth stiffness in regards to bending andshearing deformation, flattening due to Hertzian pressure, andtilting of the tooth in the gear body. The new method was tested bycomparing its results with FEM and LVR. This paper illustrates and discusses the results of this study.Furthermore the maximum local power losses are compared with thescoring safety calculated following the flash temperature criteriaof AGMA925 and DIN 3990.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 09FTM01-2009 Influence Of The Residual Stresses Induced By Hard Finishing Processes On The Running Behavior Of Gears
    语言:
    适用范围:Low noise and high load carrying capacity are two importantcharacteristics of competitive power transmissions. The challengein the development, design and manufacturing of these powertransmissions is to meet these requirements economically. One ofthe ways to meet both of these requirements is through a processknown as hard finishing. There are various types of hard finishingand it is important to know which process produces whichrequirement. The aim of this research project is to induce residual stressesin the edge of the work pieces by different hard finishingprocesses and to analyze their influence on the durability of thegears. The tested gears are manufactured by profile grinding, gearhoning and generating grinding. The gear deviations and the finishquality have to be comparable. Through this the influence of theresidual stresses on the durability can be analyzed independentfrom the geometrical conditions. The presentation will show theresults of the load carrying capacity tests depending on the valuesof the residual stresses.
    电子版¥230.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 08FTM12-2008 In-Situ Measurement Of Stresses In Carburized Gears Via Neutron Diffraction
    语言:
    适用范围:The total stresses in a mating gear pair arise from two sources:1) externally induced stresses associated with the transmission ofpower, and 2) residual stresses associated with the heat treatmentand machining of the tooth profiles. The stresses due to powertransmission are the result of complex normal and shearing forcesthat develop during the meshing sequence. The total stress fromthese two sources contributes to the life of a gear. This paper,funded by the AGMA Foundation, presents the results of researchdirected at measuring the total stress in a pair of staticallyloaded and carburized spur gears. Measurements were made usingneutron diffraction methods to examine the change in total stressas a function of externally applied load and depth below thesurface. The paper includes a summary of the various test methodsthat were used and a discussion of their applicability tocarburized gears.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 08FTM04-2008 The Effect Of Manufacturing Microgeometry Variations On The Load Distribution Factor And On Gear Contact And Root Stresses
    语言:
    适用范围:Traditionally, gear rating procedures on directly considermanufacturing accuracy in the application of the dynamic factor,but only indirectly through the load distribution consider sucherrors in the calculation of stresses used in the durability andgear strength equations. This paper discusses how accuracy affectsthe calculation of stresses and then uses both statistical designof experiments and Monte Carlo simulation techniques to quantifythe effects of different manufacturing and assembly errors on rootand contact stresses. Manufacturing deviations to be consideredinclude profile and lead slopes and curvatures as well asmisalignment. The effects of spacing errors, runout and centerdistance variation will also be discussed.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 07FTM16-2007 Straight Bevel Gear Cutting And Grinding On Cnc Free Form Machine
    语言:
    适用范围:Manufacturing of straight bevel gears was in the past onlypossible on specially dedicated machines. One type of straightbevel gears are those cut with a circular cutter with acircumferential blade arrangement. The machines and the gears theymanufacture have the Gleason trade name Coniflex®. The cutters arearranged in the machine under an angle in an interlockingarrangement which allows a completing cutting process. The twointerlocking cutters have to be adjusted independently duringsetup, which is complicated and time consuming. The outdatedmechanical machines have never been replaced by full CNC machines,but there is still a considerable demand in a high variety of lowquantities of straight bevel ears. Just recently it was discoveredthat it is possible to connect one of the interlocking straightbevel gear cutter disks to a free form bevel gear generator and cutstraight bevel gears of identical geometry compared to thededicated mechanical straight bevel gear generator. A conversionbased on a vector approach delivers basic settings as they are usedin modern free form machines. The advantages are quick setup, highaccuracy, easy corrections and high repeatability.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 07FTM12-2007 The Effect Of Start-Up Conditions On Gearbox Performance And Life - Failure Analysis And Case Study
    语言:
    适用范围:When gearboxes are used in applications in which the connectedload has high inertia, the starting torque transmitted by thegearbox can be much higher than the rated load of the prime mover.Power plants often require several evaporative cooling towers orlarge banks of air cooled condensers (ACC) to discharge waste heat.Because of the very large size of the fans used in theseapplications, they fall into this category of high inertia startingload devices. When started from zero speed, a very high torque isrequired to accelerate the fan to normal operating speed. If thefan is started infrequently and run continuously for long periodsof time, this high starting torque is of minimal significance.However, when the fan is started and stopped frequently, the numberof cycles at the high starting torque can accumulate to a pointwhere they can cause extensive fatigue damage, even if the gearsystem is adequately rated. Where the gear unit is marginallyrated, very early, catastrophic gear failure is often the result.As part of the overall investigation of several failures in suchgearboxes, we measured starting torque on a typical installation,examined many failed gears, and calculated the load capacityratings for the gearboxes under actual operating conditions. Thispaper describes the failures observed, the testing conducted, thedata analyses and the effect of the high measured starting torqueon the life and performance of the gear systems. The test resultsrevealed surprising results, especially during starts where the fanwas already wind-milling due to natural air flow in the ACCbank.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 有效 AGMA 07FTM08-2007Manufacturing Net Shaped Cold Formed Gears
    发布日期:
    2007-10
    来源:
    新信标准
    快速预览
    有效 AGMA 07FTM08-2007 Manufacturing Net Shaped Cold Formed Gears
    语言:
    适用范围:An innovate metal forming process has been developed formanufacturing quality, durable and cost efficient gears for highvolume production. In this paper, the development of Cold FormedGears (CFG) will be presented along with their suitableapplications. The manufacturing technique and equipment will beintroduced as well as the advantages and limitations. Applicablematerials and heat treatment practices will also be discussed. Geartooth inspection charts will be presented and compared toconventional manufacturing methodologies.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 07FTM04-2007 Applying Elemental Gear Measurement To Mold Modification Of Molded Plastic Gears
    语言:英文
    适用范围:Although elemental gear inspection is rarely specified formolded plastic gears, themeasurement equipment and practices can bevaluable in advancing the molding processes and improving thequality of the molded gears. After a brief description of plasticgear tooling and molding, this paper gives examples of specificelemental measurements and relates themto process changesandquality improvements.Such examples for spur and helical gearsinclude: profile measurements leading to gear mesh noise reduction;lead measurement leading to increased face width load distributionand, continuing from that, even to the molding of crowned gears;and index measurement leading to improved roundness of gears moldedfrom fiber reinforced plastic materials.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 07FTM02-2007 Study Of The Correlation Between Theoretical And Actual Gear Fatigue Test Data On A Polyamide
    语言:
    适用范围:Fatigue tests have been run on actual molded gears in order toprovide design data, using fully lubricated, plastic on plasticspur gears in a temperature controlled experiment. The purpose ofthe testing is to see if there is a good correlation betweenfatigue data, generated in a lab on test bars, versus the actualfatigue performance in a gear. In order to do this, the theories ofgear calculations to get root stresses also had to be examined.Advanced FEA showed that there are corrections needed to accountfor high loading or high temperatures in plastic gears. Thechemistry of various nylons used in gears is explained. A highcrystalline nylon has been found which is an excellent material forgears in demanding applications and can withstand high torques andoperating temperatures. The material has very good wear propertiesand excellent retention of mechanical properties (strength,stiffness, and fatigue) especially at elevated temperatures.Several commercial gear applications are currently utilizing theseproperties. These will be shown to demonstrate the benefits andmanufacturability of this material.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 06FTM16-2006 Certificate For Involute Gear Evaluation Software
    语言:
    适用范围:A test for the verification of involute gear software has beendeveloped at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Thepaper show the critical influence on the measurement uncertainty ofuncertified involute evaluation software. Beside the test parameterinformation of the most dominant effects of software errors will beexplained. The algorithms developed during this project shouldinfluence and complete existing standards and guidelines.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 有效 AGMA 06FTM13-2006Economic Aspects Of Vacuum Carburizing
    发布日期:
    2006-10
    来源:
    新信标准
    快速预览
    有效 AGMA 06FTM13-2006 Economic Aspects Of Vacuum Carburizing
    语言:
    适用范围:This paper presents the aspects of vacuum carburizing technologythat have an impact on process costs and quality improvements inthe final product. There is an interest in furnaces for vacuumcarburizing due to the demand for products with overallmetallurgical quality and low unit cost. Vacuum carburizingtechnology produces work with minimum distortion, and desiredsurface metallurgy. Systems can provide "cold to cold" (cold workgoing in, cold work coming out) and fully automatic operation thatreduces operator involvement, thus minimizing labor. Consideringupstream and downstream requirements, vacuum carburizing canprovide a total reduction of costs. This technology differsconsiderably from traditional gas carburizing both in the equipmentused and in the process economy.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 06FTM07-2006 Improvement Of Standardized Test Methods For Evaluating The Lubricant Influence On Micropitting And Pitting Resistance Of Carburized Gears
    语言:
    适用范围:Micropitting and pitting are fatigue failures that occur on casecarburized gears. The performance of lubricants in regard tomicropitting and pitting can be evaluated by test methods. TheFVA-FZG-micropitting test consists of two parts: a load stage testfollowed by an endurance test. The tests require relatively highcosts and are time consuming. Therefore an analogous short testmethod was developed to classify candidate lubricants, andsupplement the existing test. The results of the short test methodare given. The FVA-FZG-pitting test is for limited-life using testgears, which are ground without controlled profile or helixmodifications. Although the flank roughness is restricted, theappearance of micropitting can cause a wide statistical spread ofpitting test life. Thus, there was potential improvement in thetest results reproducibility. In the test gears were superfinishedto prevent micropitting, and given flank modifications for improvedtest relevance. The paper describes test procedures and shows basicexamples of test results.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 06FTM02-2006 Isotropic Superfinishing Of S-76C+ Main Transmission Gears
    语言:
    适用范围:Isotropic superfinishing was applied to the third stage spurbull gear and mating pinions along with the second stage bevelgears of a Sikorsky S-76C+ main gearbox. The gearbox completed thestandard Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) and a 200-hour endurancetest. During these tests noise, vibration, and operatingtemperatures were shown to be significantly reduced due to lowerfriction. A description of the tests, performance data and ageneral description of the process is presented.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 06FTM01-2006 The Effects Of Super Finishing On Bending Fatigue
    语言:
    适用范围:A super finishing study was designed and conducted for bendingfatigue. AMS6265 parts were created: with and without superfinishing. Bending fatigue was tested using Single Tooth Fatigue(STF) and RR Moore rotating beam methods. The STF parts weredesigned with tooth geometry replicating a spiral bevel gearsection. Two lots of material were processed. Thus, a minimum oftwo carburized and hardened lots, two shot peen batches and twosuper finishing cycles (if applicable) were processed per samplegroup. A detailed metallurgical evaluation was performed tocharacterize the material and compare to actual spiral bevel gears.Analysis of the test data concluded no statistical difference inbending fatigue strength.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 05FTM19-2005 The Application Of Very Large, Weld Fabricated, Carburized Hardened & Hard Finished Advanced Technology Gears In Steel
    语言:
    适用范围:In the 1980's, Advanced Technology Gear (ATG) steel rollingmillgear drives consisting of carburized pinions in mesh with verylarge, weld fabricated, high through hardened gears were introducedto improve capacity. Recently, even the improvements obtained fromthese ATG gear sets were not sufficient to meet higher productionrates and rolling loads. For greater load capacity ATG sets havebeen developed consisting of carburized, hardened pinions in meshwith very large, weld fabricated, carburized and hard finishedgears. Single and double helical gears of this type, ranging insize from 80 to 136 inches pitch diameter have been implemented inseveral steel rolling applications. This paper describes theconditions that require the use of these gears and the technologyrequired to design, manufacture, and, especially, heat treat, thesevery special, very large gear sets.
    电子版¥230.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 05FTM17-2005 Influences Of Bearing Life Considerations On Gear Drive Design
    语言:
    适用范围:Historically, catalog gear drives have been designed with 5000hours of L10 bearing life at service factor 1.0 power. Advances inbearing analysis methods have brought new considerations to thedesign and selection process. The impact of new modelingtechniques, additional considerations, and various extensions tothe traditional bearing fatigue calculations are explored. Themodeling of these various additions to a traditional catalog L10calculation is illustrated by bearing selections for cases ofsingle, double, and triple reduction gear drives. A roadmap ispresented listing critical considerations when applying variousbearing manufacturer recommendations.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 05FTM14-2005 Determining The Shaper Cut Helical Gear Fillet Profile
    语言:
    适用范围:This paper describes a root fillet form calculating method for ahelical gear generated with a shaper cutter. The shaper cutterconsidered has an involute main profile and elliptical cutter edgein the transverse plane. Since the fillet profile cannot bedetermined with closed form equations, a Newton's approximationmethod was used in the calculation procedure. The paper will alsoexplore the feasibility of using a shaper tool algorithm forapproximating a hobbed fillet form. Finally, the paper will alsodiscuss some of the applications of fillet form calculationprocedures such as form diameter (start of involute) calculationand finishing stock analysis.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 05FTM12-2005 Modal Failure Analysis Of A Gear And Drive Ring Assembly
    语言:
    适用范围:After years of successful reliable applications, a componentfailure on a new application cannot be explained with static stressanalyses, modal failure analysesmay be required. Finite elementmodal analyseswas used to identify the mode and its frequency thatcause a high range gear and drive ring assembly to failprematurely. ACampbellDiagram was used to identifymodes in theoperating range of a six--speed transmission that could cause thedrive ring to fail. Redesigning the assembly to move thecriticalmodes out of the operating range is described.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车
  • 快速预览
    有效 AGMA 05FTM02-2005 The Effects Of Pre Rough Machine Processing On Dimensional Distortion During Carburizing
    语言:
    适用范围:A study was conducted to isolate the influence of pre-roughmachine processing on final dimensional distortion. Methods arediscussed to aid process development and minimize dimensionalchange during carburizing. The study examined the distortion duringcarburizing between five possible raw material starting conditions.Coupons were used and manufactured from each population ofmaterialprocessing. All coupons were carburized and hardened at the sametime. Dimensions were made before and after carburizing using ascanning coordinatemeasurement machine. The results show thatdimensional distortion during carburizing increases with mechanicaland thermal processing.
    电子版¥235.00
    加入购物车